1Chairul Muriman Setyabudi, 2Amru Rasyid Nurussalam, 3Riant Nugroho
123Mini Management Master of Public Policies of Rumah Reformasi Kebijakan
Citation: Chairul Muriman, Amru Rasyid, Riant Nugroho, The Implementation Of An MOU On Assisting And Supervising Village Fund Management, Management Technology and Security International Journal, pages 96-108, http://doi.org/10.47490/mtsij.v2.i2.96108
Village fund is the realization of granting villages’ rights to accelerate the development processes in their area in order to improve their social welfares. However, the village fund distribution and allocation, also known as village fund management, have experienced obstacles and misuses, often leading to criminal offences. One of the ideas to solve such issues is to involve all Bhabinkamtibmas officers (police non-commissioned officers or police sergeants who are in-charged of couching security and public order in villages or certain areas) in order to assist and supervise the village fund management. The purposes of this research are to examine the implementation of the MOU signed by the Villages, Disadvantaged Regions and Transmigration Ministry and Indonesian National Police regarding the involvement of Bhabinkamtibmas officers in assisting and supervising the village fund management as well as getting a picture of competencies needed by Bhabinkamtibmas officers in assisting and supervising the village fund management. The research employs a quantitative approach supported by quantitative data using a case study. Data is obtained by conducting several Forum Discussion Groups (FGD) and interviews. In addition, questionnaires are distributed to 592 respondents taken from Jakarta Metropolitan Police Region, Central Java Police Region, East Kalimantan Police Region and Jambi Police Region. The results of the research show that Bhabinkamtibmas officers’ assistance in managing village funds is still ineffective due to the fact that assistance activities are carried out at the same time with the moment of delivering other police services as the main tasks of the Bhabinkamtibmas officers and most of Bhabinkamtimbas officers prefer having social competencies than other competencies in assisting and supervising the village fund management.
Keywords: bhabinkamtibmas; implementation; village fund
According to Law No. 6/2014 regarding Village, the organization of a village administration contains two major elements: the organization of government affairs and the interests of local community (Fachturahman Nur, 2014). As a consequence, the village apparatus should become a miniature of the state that fully presents the village apparatus components in providing services to the community. It goes without saying, a village needs capital—in the forms of finance and assets—in order to carry out its activities in providing services based on the community interests, both in terms of development and empowerment.
Village Funds are the manifestation of granting a village’s right to hold the village autonomy in order to accelerate the realization of community welfare in accordance with the growth conditions following the growth of the village itself based on the diversity, participation, original autonomy, democratization and community empowerment within the framework of the unity of the Republic of Indonesia (Junadi, 2013). Village funds, according to Indrawati (2017), are effective in encouraging economic growth and addressing inequality. In the occasion, the Minister states that the funds have increased people’s purchasing power because the funds are directly given to the villagers through the villages’ officials. Furthermore, she states that within the first four years (2015-18), the implementation of village fund has benefited the community, especially in the structure sectors. In terms of the outcomes, the implementation of the village fund has also contributed to the reduction of poverty and inequality in rural areas. This can be seen from, among others, the decline in the rural Gini ratio, from 0.34 in 2014 to 0.32 in 2018 and the declining number of rural poor from 17.8 million (14.2%) in 2015 to 15.8 million people (13.2%) in 2018 (kemenkeu.go.id, 2019).
However, there are still many problems surrounding the village fund management. One of the most disturbing problems in village fund management is the fact that most of village heads lack financial literacy. This has slowed down the budget absorptions. The village heads also worry under the shadow of the current provisions, which stipulate sanctions if they fail to manage the funds appropriately and legally. “Technical problems have delayed the absorption of village funds. Moreover, there are regulations on rural development, yet technical experts and advisors are not available to villages,” a village head said during a meeting with several ministers in Palembang, South Sumatera (Jakarta Post, Tue March 10, 2020). Other problems are corruption. There have been several reports on the misallocations of the funds and corruption because of the poor accountability systems that are in place. Indonesian Corruption Watch (ICW) reported that it had recorded 181 corruption cases in villages across the country from the launch of the program in 2015 until January 2019, with 30 percent of the cases related to village funds (Jakarta Post, March 10, 2020). According to the same report (cnnindonesia.com), the total loss reach IDR 107.7 billion. Another study (Pratiwi, 2017) conducted by the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) states that there are four gaps in corruption cases related to the village fund, namely (1) regulation and institutions; (2) governance or implementation of disbursement of village fund; (3) quality of supervision and assistance, and (4) integrity of human resources in managing village fund.
Based on several cases dealing with village fund, the central government is fully aware of the need to strengthen the efforts that involve other government agencies to assist and supervise the village fund management. The use of such funds must be evaluated regularly and carefully, especially in order to measure the effectiveness of using the money in order to improve the social welfares of villagers. Such awareness is realized in a memorandum of understanding (MoU) between the Villages, Disadvantaged Regions and Transmigration Ministry and the Indonesian National Police (Polri). The Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) No: 05/M-DPTDT/KB/X/2017; KMA No: 193/7621/SJ; KMA No: B/82/X/2017, aims at monitoring the use of village fund. “The MoU between the Ministry and Polri aims at ensuring that village funds are used properly and are well targeted. There must be assistance and monitoring efforts,” Polri spokeman, Inspector General Setyo Wasisto says as quoted by kompas.com in Jakarta (Jakarta Post, August 8, 2017).
In accordance with the MoU, Bhabinkamtibmas officers who are assigned in villages, on behalf of Polri, will carry out the duty of assisting and supervising the village fund management. Bhabinkamtibmas officers will help village officials manage the funds properly and correctly. However, another problem emerges related to the number of Bhabinkamtimbas officers. In reality, Polri has not been able to fulfil the representation ratio of its officers in each village. The number of Bhabinkamtibmas officers is about 54,285. Meanwhile, there are 81,711 villages throughout the Indonesia jurisdiction. This means that Polri still needs other 27,426 more Bhabinkamtibmas officers (Seumarna, 2018). And the worse thing is 14,956 Bhabinkamtibmas officers still have dual duties. This fact is an interesting basis for exploring and explaining the implementation of the officers’ additional duties to assist and supervise the village fund management and finding out the Bhabinkamtibmas officers’ competencies in conducting the additional duties.
Based on a research on the implementation of village fund policies in Soppeng Regency, Dzauqy Abdur Rabb and Muchlis (2016) explain that the implementation of the regulation of Ministry of Finance No. 93/2015 concerning the procedures for the allocation, distribution, use, monitoring, and evaluation of village fund in Ganra Sub-district has run appropriately as needed. However, they still find some obstacles that occur in the distribution of village funds. Such distributions are often out of schedule as determined by the central government. They also reveal obstacles related to human resources. Based on their findings, most of the apparatus of the villages in Ganra Sub-district do not have the required capacities in using technology in managing such fund, especially information technology.
Aswar (2017), conducting a research on village fund allocation in Donggala Regency, concludes that the implementation of village fund management policy in Siboang village of Sojol Sub-district of Donggala Regency has run poorly. It occurs because the village administrators do not optimally socialize the policies. Such situation and condition cause a low level of participation from the village community members. The village apparatus should have socialized the village fund and invited and asked inputs from the village community members about what to be built, what to be renovated, what to be done related to the village fund. They should have been involved in formulating the programs. They should have been informed about what village fund is; what they are going to do with village fund; and what the benefits of village fund are. These make the village community members unlikely or less participate in the program implementations that have been formulated by the village apparatus. Besides, dimensions of resources are inadequate, both in terms of human resources, infrastructure and other supporting elements. The disposition dimension—in this case the commitment of the management and the community in the implementation of village fund do not run well because the programs are not based on the needs of the villagers. The dimension of the organizational structure which is seen from the mechanism of the management of the implementation of the entire set of stages of the management of the village fund has run poorly. This is due to the fact that the preparation stage of the development program is not well coordinated with other relevant parties.
Village fund is fund that derives from the State Budget and Expenses (APBN) and is allocated for villages in the country. It is fully used for financing the organization of local government, development and local people empowerment. The most important focus of the disbursement of the fund is more related to the implementation so that it can be used effectively for the sake of the local community, especially the people of the village.
According to Law Number 6 of 2014 on Village, the central government transfers the village fund through the mechanism of transfer to regency or municipality government. There are requirements and regulations in disbursing the fund. The amount of the fund is getting higher. In APBN 2015, the central government provides IDR 9.066 billion to be allocated to villages. Along with the policy to build Indonesia from the outer territory in the framework of the United Republic of Indonesia, then the fund becomes IDR 20.7662 billion in APBN-P 2015. Meanwhile, looking at the benefits of establishing such fund, the central government allocates IDR 46.982 billion in 2016.
Organizational Effectiveness Based on Objectives
Gibson et al., (1973) formulate an organizational effectiveness as a degree of organizational achievement toward its objectives with limited constraints and resources. Opinions about the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization as mentioned above show that the success of an organization is basically measured according to the achievement of predetermined goals. By mentioning this approach as a goal model, Etzioni (1971) considers this model to be quite objective and trustworthy because using this model, researchers or assessors will avoid subjective values.
Organizational Effectiveness Based on System Criteria
The experts of criteria system assess organizational effectiveness based on the system criteria that is based on the concept of the “needs” of the organization as a living social system. Considering that based on theory of system criteria, an evaluation must describe the cycle of input-process-output and the relationship between the organization and the large environment, Gibson et al., (1973) argues that (1) organizational effectiveness is a global concept that includes a number of component concepts, and (2) the leader’s job is to maintain a balance between the components. Gibson et al., formulate the criteria for organizational effectiveness based on the following time dimensions:
Effectiveness is an achievement of the goals that have been set. It can be determined by comparing tangible results with ideal results to be achieved. Therefore, it can be said that effectiveness is the level of achievement of the success of the goals or ideal conditions that have been set (Salim, 1997) in Kusuma Indrayani (accessed 2019). Agung Kurniawan, in his book Public Service Transformation defines effectiveness as “the ability to carry out tasks or functions (operations of program activities or missions) of an organization or something like an organization without the pressure or tension in its implementation” (Kurniawan, 2005). Supriyono (2000) defines effectiveness as “the relationship between the outputs of a central responsibility with the goals that must be achieved, the greater the contribution of the output produced to the value of achieving these goals, then it can be said that the unit is also effective.”
According to Articles 27 and 28 of the decree of the Chief of Polri No. 3/2015, the main duties and authorities of a Bhabinkamtibmas officer is to conduct a community coaching, an early detection and a mediation/negotiation in order to create conducive conditions in a village. The authorities of a Bhabinkamtibmas officer are to visit a crime scene, to take first action at a crime scene, to take necessary steps as a follow-up to an agreement of the Community-Police Communication Forum (FPKM) in resolving police problems, and to oversee various streams that have the potential to cause conflicts.
The functions, duties and authorities above, then are constructed for the purposes of a research on the effectiveness of assistance that will be measured through mentoring tasks that are divided into the following stages: (1) village meeting phase—can be seen through the indicators of the participation of a Bhabinkamtibmas officer who actively provides advice during the meetings; (2) village fund usage phase—can be seen through the indicators that monitor disbursement process, need plan preparation process, development process, developing control process, socializing process; and (3) reporting phase—can be seen through the indicators of providing reporting support and reporting on time.
Competence, according to Spencer & Spencer in Palan (2007), is a basic characteristic possessed by an individual who is causally related in meeting the criteria needed in occupying a position. Competence consists of five types of characteristics: motives (a consistent will as well as being the cause of an action), innate factors (consistent character and response), self-concept (self-image), knowledge (information in a particular field) and skills (ability to carry out tasks).
Such concept above is in line with the opinion of Becker and Ulrich in Suparno (2005) stating that competency refers to an individual’s knowledge, skills, abilities or personality characteristics that directly influence his or her job performance. Competence contains aspects of knowledge, skills (expertise) and abilities or personality characteristics that affect performance. Such skills and abilities above is proven by a work competency certification based on the Government Regulation (PP) No. 23/2004 regarding the Professional Certification National Board (BNSP). The decree of the Head of Civil Service Agency No. 46A/2003 states that competence is “the capabilities and characteristics possessed by a civil servant in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for conducting his or her duties.” Wibowo (2007) explains that competence is the ability to carry out or to do a job or task based on the skills and work knowledge required by the job. Charles E. Jhonson in Wina Sanjaya (2005) in Anita Christine Runtu, Jantje Mandey, and Martha Ogotan (accessed 10 November 2019) divides competencies into 3 parts, namely:
Meanwhile, Kunandar (2007) states that competencies can be divided into five parts:
The research employs a qualitative paradigm using an explorative-explanatory design. The method considered is a case study (Creswell, 2015). The active role of a Bhabinkamtibmas officer is to assist the management of village fund in four police regions (Jakarta Metropolitan, East Kalimantan, Central Java and Jambi). Several cases regarding village fund will be explored through discussions (FGD) and interview in deepening the framework related to the effectiveness of a Bhabinkamtibmas officer. In addition, through questionnaires given to 592 respondents, the views or perceptions of a Bhabinkamtibmas officer and the village community members are captured regarding the role of mentoring in the use of village fund, as well as capturing the competency factors of a Bhabinkamtibmas officer which are dominant in building Bhabinkamtibmas assistance in village fund. Primary data and secondary data are analysed by qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis is an activity carried out simultaneously and mutually guarantee between data reduction, data presentation and drawing conclusions or verification (Miles and Huberman, 1985) in Muhammad and Djaali (2005).
Based on the questionnaires on the activities of Bhabinkamtibmas officers in terms of supervision procedures in all police regions, most of the officers are aware of such supervision procedures with a percentage of 58.82% (40 out of 68) in Jakarta Metropolitan; 69.02% (176 out of 255) in Central Java; 69.75% (83 of 119) in East Kalimantan; and 92.67% (139 of 150) in Jambi. In order to get more information, several interviews are held on the implementation of supervision/assistance in the utilization of village fund. It is found out that on average all police regions have conducted such supervision. Based on data, it is known that Jakarta Metropolitan Police Region rarely conduct supervision by 38.24% (26 of 68); Central Java Police Region always conduct supervision by 41.57% (106 out of 255); East Kalimantan Police Region often conduct supervision by 34.45% (41 out of 119); and Jambi Regional Police always conduct supervision by 41.33% (62 out of 150).
The assistance activities are carried out at the same time the Bhabinkamtibmas officers provide services to villagers. This sometimes is disturbing because the officers do not specifically spend their time to provide assistance in the distribution or use of village fund. Besides, the distances of the villages assisted and supervised are too far away, especially villages in East Kalimantan and Jambi. “One Bhabinkamtibmas Officer One Village” program has not been optimally implemented in the police regions due to the lack of personnel. A Bhabinkamtibmas officer in the two police regions supervises at least two to three villages. Meanwhile, Central Java and Jakarta Metropolitan have been able to provide a Bhabinkamtibmas officer for one village. The problems are the workload of the officers and their understanding on the village fund and its usage. In fact, the same condition still occurs in other two police regions: East Kalimantan and Jambi.
The average duty to provide services to villagers in Jakarta Metropolitan is 64.71% (44 out of 68); Central Java is 70, 98% (181 out of 255); East Kalimantan is 72.27% (86 out of 119); and Jambi 73.33% (110 out of 150). A quick response to the issues related to village fund is revealed by Bhabinkamtibmas officers in Jakarta Metropolitan by 61.76% (42 of 68); Central Java by 56.08% (143 out of 255), East Kalimantan by 43.70% (52 out of 199), and Jambi by 70% (105 out of 150). This quick response is the realization of their responsibility for their main tasks as a community partner in solving problems facing villagers. The effectiveness of Bhabinkamtibas officers in managing village fund can be seen in Table 1.
THE INVOLVEMENT OF BHABINKAMTIBMAS OFFICERS
IN ASSISTING THE MANAGEMENT OF VILLAGE FUND
|Bhabinkamtibmas Officers’ Role
in Managing Village Fund
Source: Data processed, 2019
Based on the recapitulation results related to the involvement of Bhabinkamtibmas members in supervising or assisting the use of village fund, a standard supervisory task has been established. The standard is divided into six stages, ranging from planning to reporting as shown in Tables 1A above and 1B below. A Bhabinkamtibmas officer is only involved in one stage, that is, planning. The officer attends and listens to the meetings but is not involved in the process of making decisions. Then, the officer is never involved in the activities of the next stages, meaning that the officer is involved by 16% of 100%. This number shows that the Bhabinkamtibmas officer has not maximally played his role in the activities of assisting or supervising village fund. Therefore, the role carried out by a Bhabinkamtibmas officer is still ineffective. In addition, based on several interviews conducted with Bhabinkamtibmas officers, it is revealed that they often experience various obstacles originating from village officials. Some of village officials are often close-minded.
THE INVOLVEMENT OF BHABINKAMTIBMAS OFFICERS
IN ASSISTING THE MANAGEMENT OF VILLAGE FUND
|Bhabinkamtibmas Officers’ Role
in Managing Village Fund
Source: Data processed, 2019
They distrust Bhabinkamtibmas officers who are considered disturbing related to the use of village fund. The worse thing is the fact that most of Bhabinkamtibmas officers as well as village officials have not had maximal competencies and knowledge related to the planning, budgeting and controlling the construction projects funded by village funds. Gibson et al., (1973) argues that formulating organizational effectiveness as the degree of organizational achievement toward its objectives with limited constraints and resources.
The implementation of the MoU has not been fully effective due to the fact that a Bhabinkamtibmas officer only gets involved in 1 of 6 stages of managing village fund. In fact, there has not been a SOP of such implementation which integrates the implementation of the MoU. As a result, the communication among the apparatus of the relevant institutions cannot run optimally and they cannot fully synergize in managing the village fund optimal.
In the context of competence, Bhabinkamtibmas officers’ competence can be a standard whether the officers have succeeded in providing assistance or supervision over village fund or not. Based on the results of the research conducted in Jakarta Metropolitan Police Region, there are 21.40% officers prioritizing professional competence compared to knowledge (16.31%). The researchers analysed that Jakarta Metropolitan Bhabinkamtibmas officers do not have specific knowledge on the supervision of village fund (see Figure 1).
Figure 1: Ranking Competencies of Jakarta Metropolitan Police Region
On the other hand, Bhabinkamtibmas officers of Central Java Police Region prioritize knowledge (42.41%). They think that it is the basic competency that must be possessed by Bhabinkamtibmas officers. By having such knowledge, the officers can build an understanding used to analyse things related to problems that occur in the work area of Bhabinkambtimas, including how to manage and solve various issues regarding village fund as the object of their supervision or assistance (see Figure 2).
Figure 2: Ranking Competencies of Central Java Police Region
Meanwhile, 29.28% East Kalimantan Bhabinkamtibmas Officers choose social competency because they think by having it they can have and maintain a close relationships with villagers. Moreover, everything related to social problems can be controlled by having good relationships with villagers so that problems can be solved. By having this social competency, Bhabinkamtibmas officers think that they can be accepted well by villagers because they can socially adapt with traditions in the villages (see Figure 3).
Figure 3: Ranking Competencies of East Kalimantan Police Region
Such conditions also occur in Jambi Police Region. Most of Bhabinkamtibmas officers assigned there choose social competency as the most important competency in handling problems related to village fund by 58.41% (see Figure 4).
Figure 4: Ranking Competencies of Jambi Police Region
Based on the findings and analysis above, the author can conclude the following things:
Based on these conclusions, it is recommended that it is necessary to:
Anita Christine Runtu Jantje Mandey Martha Ogotan, “Competence of Human Resources in Improving the Performance of Educational Personnel in the Academic Section of Sam Ratulangi University, Manado“, https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/1330-ID-kompetensi-sumber-daya-manusia-sdm-in-improve-performance-power-kependidika.pdf, (accessed 10 November 2019).
Aswar, 2017. “Implementation of Village Fund Allocation Management Policies in Siboang Village, Sojol District, Donggala Regency”, e-catalogue of Journalists, Volume 5 Number 12, pp. 99-107, ISSN: 2302-2019, http://jurnal.untad.ac.en/, accessed on January 28, 2019.
Creswell, John W. 2015. Qualitative Research & Design Research: Choosing among Five Approaches, Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
Dzauqy Abdur Rabb, Ahmad and Muchlis, Mustakim, 2016. “The Implementation of Village Fund Policies Based on the Minister of Finance Regulation Number 93 of 2015 in Ganra Sub-district of Soppeng Regency”, Journal of Civilization Accounting: Vol. II No. 1, Makassar: UIN Alauddin (accessed January 28, 2019).
Etzioni. 1971. “Two Approaches to Organizational Analysis: A Critique and A Suggestion” in the Assessment of Organizational Effectiveness (ed. Ghorpade, J). Pacific Palisades, California: Goodyear Publishing Company, Inc.
Fachturahman Nur, Turiman, 2014. “Understanding the Substance of Law No. 6 of 2014 Regarding Villages”, http://rajawaligarudapancasila.blogspot.com/2014/03/html, accessed on January 28, 2019.
Gibson, J.L. et. al., 1973. Organizations: Structure, Process, Behaviour. Dallas, Texas: Business Publication Inc.
Indrayani, Sri Mulyani, 2017. “Key note speech The Importance of the Village Fund Program”, Jakarta: Regional International Fund for Agricultural Development, https: //national. Tempo.co, (accessed on January 28, 2019).
Junadi, 2013. “Implementation of Village Fund Allocation Policy (Study of the Implementation of the Bojonegoro Regent’s Regulation Number 32 of 2013 concerning Village Fund Allocation (ADD) in Sumberarum Village, Dander District, Bojonegoro Regency)”, http://ejorunalunigoro.com. (accessed on January 28, 2019).
Kunandar, 2007. Professional Teachers Implement Education Unit Level Curriculum (SBC) and Preparation for Teacher Certification. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo: Persada.
Kurniawan, Agung, 2005. Transforming Public Services. Yogyakarta: Renewal
Kusuma Indrayani, Firma, “The Effectiveness of the Hope Family Program in Sugihwaras Village, Saradan Sub-district, Madiun Regency.”
http://jurnalmahasiswa.unesa.ac.id, accessed on 30 January 2019.
Muhammad, Farouk and Djaali. 2005. Social Research Methodology: Revised Edition, Jakarta: PTIK Press and CV. Restu Agung.
Palan, R. (2007) Competency Management: Technical Implementing Competency-Based HR Management to Improve Organizational Competitiveness. PPM. Jakarta.
Pratiwi, Lis, 2017. “Weak Supervision Cause the High Corruption of Village Funds”, http://news.metrotvnews.com/hukum, accessed on January 28, 2019.
Sumarna, Ayi, 2018. “Management of Village Funds and the Role of the National Police”, http://www.keuangandesa.info/2018, (accessed on January 28, 2019).
Suparno, Paul., 2005. Misconceptions and Concept Changes in Physics Education, PT. Gramedia Widia Sarana, Yogyakarta
Supriyono, R.A, 2000. Management Control System. Yogyakarta: BPFE.
Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 6 of 2014 concerning Villages.
Wibowo, 2007, Performance Management, Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada.